A closed high-frequency Vlasov–Maxwell simulation model in toroidal geometry

A fully-kinetic ion and gyrokinetic electron Vlasov– Maxwell particle simulation model is derived through Lie transform perturbation theory for Hamiltonian systems. This model is closed by the field equations of Poisson’s equation and Ampere’ law. This scheme preserves the phase-space volume, and retains the ion cyclotron motion, while fine scale electron motion is ignored, so that the frequency falls in the range Ω i<ω< Ωe. Using a perturbative method (δf ), and ignoring the high order terms, this model is then formulated in a magnetic flux coordinate system with equilibrium Maxwellian distribution of particles. Thus, this model is especially suitable for the global particle simulation of high-frequency physical processes such as lower hybrid waves and waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies.